Keckler, University of New Mexico, finding a clear deterrent in the death penalty for those who murder and do not fear prison. The Case of Illinois," by Dale O. It is found that these actions are coincident with the increased risk of homicide incurred by the residents of Illinois over the 48 month post-event period for which data were available.
Hugo Wolfram[ edit ] Wolfram's father, Hugo Wolfram —a textile manufacturer born in BochumGermany, served as managing director of the Lurex Company, makers of the fabric Lurex. He was also the author of three novels. She published two books, Philosophical Logic: An Introduction  and In-laws and Outlaws: Kinship and Marriage in England They have four children together.
Particle physics[ edit ] Wolfram, at the age of 15, began research in applied quantum field theory and particle physics and published scientific papers. Topics included matter creation and annihilationthe fundamental interactionselementary particles and their currents, hadronic and leptonic physics, and the parton modelpublished in professional peer-reviewed scientific journals including Nuclear Physics B, Australian Journal of PhysicsNuovo Cimentoand Physical Review D.
Wolfram's work with Geoffrey C. Fox on the theory of the strong interaction is still used in experimental particle physics. John's College, Oxford at age 17 but found lectures "awful",  and left in  without graduating   to attend the California Institute of Technologythe following year, where he received a PhD  in particle physics on 19 November at age Sciulli and Steven Frautschiand chaired by Richard D.
Following his PhD, Wolfram joined the faculty at Caltech and became the youngest recipient  of the MacArthur Fellowships inat age He produced a series of papers systematically investigating the class of elementary cellular automataconceiving the Wolfram codea naming system for one-dimensional cellular automata, and a classification scheme for the complexity of their behaviour.
In it, in response to Wolfram writing to him that he was thinking about creating some kind of institute where he might study complex systems, Feynman tells Wolfram, "You do not understand ordinary people," and advises him "find a way to do your research with as little contact with non-technical people as possible.
Complex Systems has developed a broad base of readers and contributors from academia, industry, government and the general public in over 50 countries around the world. Symbolic Manipulation Program[ edit ] Main article: A dispute with the administration over the intellectual property rights regarding SMP—patents, copyright, and faculty involvement in commercial ventures—eventually caused him to resign from Caltech.
Institute for Advanced Study[ edit ] Main article: But by that time, he was no longer interested in particle physics.
Instead, he began pursuing what he viewed as more creative areas-specifically, cellular automata. Wolfram methodically analyzed sets of rules, developing a classification system that rated the complexity of various cellular automata-all with the intention of clarifying the way we view complexity in the real world.
In Wolfram's mind, studying the results of cellular-automata runs on the computer could unlock deep truths about the universe itself. Mathematica In Wolfram left the Institute for Advanced Study for the University of Illinois at Urbana—Champaign where he founded their Center for Complex Systems Research and started to develop the computer algebra system Mathematica, which was first released on 23 Junewhen he left academia.
Inhe founded Wolfram Research which continues to develop and market the program. A New Kind of Science From tohe worked on his controversial book A New Kind of Science  which presents an empirical study of simple computational systems.
Additionally, it argues that for fundamental reasons these types of systems, rather than traditional mathematics, are needed to model and understand complexity in nature.
Wolfram's conclusion is that the universe is digital in its nature, and runs on fundamental laws which can be described as simple programs.
He predicts that a realization of this within the scientific communities will have a major and revolutionary influence on physics, chemistry and biology and the majority of the scientific areas in general, which is the reason for the book's title.
Since the release of the book in Wolfram has split his time between developing Mathematica and encouraging people to get involved with the subject matter of A New Kind of Science by giving talks, holding conferences, and starting a summer school devoted to the topic.
Inthe summer school began being hosted by the University of Vermont at Burlington, with the exception of the year which was held at the Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologie dell'Informazione of the CNR in Pisa, Italy.
Inthe program was held at Curry College in Milton, Massachusetts. In A New Kind of Science is the idea of exploring a new abstract universe: In A New Kind of Science, Wolfram shows how simple programs in his computational universe capture the essence of the complexity - and beauty - of many systems in nature.
This led to the creation of Wolfram Tones which works by taking simple programs from Wolfram's computational universe, applying music theory, and Wolfram Language algorithms to render them as music.
Each program in effect defines a virtual world, with its own special story - and Wolfram Tones captures it as a musical composition. In A New Kind of ScienceWolfram found what was then the simplest known universal Turing machine - with 2 states and 5 colors.
However, he also did an extensive search of simpler Turing machines and in doing that, found a much simpler candidate for universality, a 2,3 Turing machine. Five months after the contest's announcement, an undergraduate student from Birmingham, UK, successfully found the 2,3 Turing machine to be universal and provided a page paper to prove his findings.
Wolfram Alpha computational knowledge engine[ edit ] Main article: Wolfram Alpha later launched in May and a paid-for version with extra features launched on February Criminal justice is a broad, multidisciplinary field dedicated to the study of laws and law enforcement.
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