Theories of development

From normal person to responsible traveller During the second half of the 20th century tourism changed from a social activity to a merely economic one. Many travellers from earlier days changed into modern tourists.

Theories of development

Birth Months Old Basic Trust vs. The child will develop optimism, trust, confidence, and security if properly cared for and handled.

Cognitive Development Theory

If a child does not experience trust, he or she may develop insecurity, worthlessness, and general mistrust to the world. Shame — Will The second stage occurs between 18 months and 3 years. At this point, the child has an opportunity to build self-esteem and autonomy as he or she learns new skills and right from wrong.

The well-cared for child is sure of himself, carrying himself or herself with pride rather than shame.

Theories of development

Children tend to be vulnerable during this stage, sometimes feeling shame and Theories of development low self-esteem during an inability to learn certain skills. Guilt — Purpose During this period we experience a desire to copy the adults around us and take initiative in creating play situations.

The most significant relationship is with the basic family. Inferiority — Competence During this stage, often called the Latency, we are capable of learning, creating and accomplishing numerous new skills and knowledge, thus developing a sense of industry. This is also a very social stage of development and if we experience unresolved feelings of inadequacy and inferiority among our peers, we can have serious problems in terms of competence and self-esteem.

As the world expands a bit, our most significant relationship is with the school and neighborhood.

Theories of development

Parents are no longer the complete authorities they once were, although they are still important. Role Confusion — Fidelity Up until this fifth stage, development depends on what is done to a person.

Social Development Theory (Lev Vygotsky) -

At this point, development now depends primarily upon what a person does. Some attempt to delay entrance to adulthood and withdraw from responsibilities moratorium. Those unsuccessful with this stage tend to experience role confusion and upheaval. Adolescents begin to develop a strong affiliation and devotion to ideals, causes, and friends.

Isolation — Love At the young adult stage, people tend to seek companionship and love. Young adults seek deep intimacy and satisfying relationships, but if unsuccessful, isolation may occur.

Significant relationships at this stage are with marital partners and friends. Self absorption or Stagnation — Care Career and work are the most important things at this stage, along with family.

Middle adulthood is also the time when people can take on greater responsibilities and control. Inactivity and meaninglessness are common fears during this stage.

Major life shifts can occur during this stage. For example, children leave the household, careers can change, and so on. Some may struggle with finding purpose. Significant relationships are those within the family, workplace, local church and other communities.Self-theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development (Essays in Social Psychology) 1st Edition.

Guilford researched and developed a wide variety of psychometric tests to measure the specific abilities predicted by SI theory. These tests provide an operational . The major theme of Vygotsky’s theoretical framework is that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition.

Vygotsky () states: “Every function in the child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual level.

SEC 4 Page 1 of 6 7. PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT THEORIES OF WHAT IS PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT: Personality development has been a major topic of interest for some of the most prominent thinkers in psychology. Articles published on this site are handouts/class notes prepared by the editors based on the references cited.

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Personality Theories