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English contains a number of sounds and sound distinctions not present in some other languages. Speakers of languages without these sounds may have problems both with hearing and with pronouncing them. Native speakers of ArabicTagalogJapaneseKoreanand important dialects of all current Iberian Romance languages including most of Spanish have difficulty distinguishing [b] and [v], what is known as betacism.
This is present in some English registers—known as l-vocalization —but may be shunned as substandard or bring confusion in others.
Languages may also differ in syllable structure ; English allows for a cluster of up to three consonants before the vowel and five after it e.
Japanese and Brazilian Portuguesefor example, broadly alternate consonant and vowel sounds so learners from Japan and Brazil often force vowels between the consonants e. Similarly, in most Iberian dialects, a word can begin with [s], and [s] can be followed by a consonant, but a word can never begin with [s] immediately followed by a consonant, so learners whose mother tongue is in this language family often have a vowel in front of the word e.
Grammar[ edit ] Tense, aspect, and mood — English has a relatively large number of tense—aspect—mood forms with some quite subtle differences, such as the difference between the simple past "I ate" and the present perfect "I have eaten".
Progressive and perfect progressive forms add complexity. Functions of auxiliaries — Learners of English tend to find it difficult to manipulate the various ways in which English uses auxiliary verbs.
These include negation e. Has he been drinking? Modal verbs — English has several modal auxiliary verbswhich each has a number of uses. These verbs convey a special sense or mood such as obligation, necessity, ability, probability, permission, possibility, prohibition, intention etc.
These include "must", "can", "have to", "need to", "will", "shall", "ought to", "will have to", "may", and "might". This complexity takes considerable work for most English language learners to master.
All these modal verbs or "modals" take the first form of the verb after them. These modals most of them do not have past or future inflection, i. Idiomatic usage — English is reputed to have a relatively high degree of idiomatic usage.
Another example is the idiomatic distinction between "make" and "do": Articles — English has two forms of article: In addition, at times English nouns can or indeed must be used without an article; this is called the zero article.
Although the information conveyed by articles is rarely essential for communication, English uses them frequently several times in the average sentence so that they require some effort from the learner. Vocabulary[ edit ] Phrasal verbs — Phrasal verbs also known as multiple-word verbs in English can cause difficulties for many learners because of their syntactic pattern and because they often have several meanings.
There are also a number of phrasal verb differences between American and British English. For example, the prepositions "on" rely on, fall on"of" think of, because of, in the vicinity ofand "at" turn at, meet at, start at are used in so many different ways and contexts, it is very difficult to remember the exact meaning for each one.Definitions.
This higher-level cognition was given the label metacognition by American developmental psychologist John H. Flavell ().. The term metacognition literally means cognition about cognition, or more informally, thinking about thinking. Series Overview Features Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Health Sciences Cultural Studies Business Sociology Sociology Psychology.
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English Grammar in Use Fourth Edition is the world’s best-selling self-study grammar book for learners of English, written by Raymond Murphy.. It has a fresh, appealing new design and clear layout, with revised and updated examples, but retains all the key features of clarity and accessibility that have made the book popular with millions of learners and teachers around the world.
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