Finnish Folklore by Juhani U.
China contains many different cultural groupings, who speak a number of different languages. Their evolution has not been entirely oral. Much Chinese mythology is based on animism, Introduction to the interpretation of myth sees the land itself as alive. It contains many therianthropic creatures, who are both animal and human, and demonstrates the playfulness of the gods.
Strands of Chinese belief Chinese mythology has been influenced by a fear of outsiders. It has also been shaped, sometimes deliberately, by religious faiths and philosophies. Some myths even demonstrate the conflict between them, as in the story of the Monkey King, which reflects the conflict between Taoists and Buddhists.
Taoism A central quest within Taoist practices is the search for immortality - literal, physical immortality. The sense of an interplay between natural law and the abstract laws prevailing in the cosmos, is held in common by shamanism and Taoism.
Taoism searched for balance within these forces and enshrined the concept that change cannot be forced, only experienced and assimilated. Confucianism Confucius lived in the sixth century BCE, a time of considerable political unrest and feuding. He taught the virtues of order, structure and correct behaviour, which was underpinned by a rigid notion of hierarchy, involving strict filial devotion.
Confucian notions of hierarchy are evident in the bureaucratic pantheon of Chinese myths. Buddhism Buddhism was introduced to China in the first century CE and has been adapted by the Chinese so that the mythologies of the indigenous faiths and the imported are intertwined.
Archetypal/Myth Criticism. A form of criticism based largely on the works of C. G. Jung (YOONG) and Joseph Campbell (and myth itself). Some of the school's major figures include Robert Graves, Francis Fergusson, Philip Wheelwright, Leslie Fiedler, Northrop Frye, Maud Bodkin, and G. Wilson Knight. The Lord's Servant must not quarrel; instead, he must be kind to everyone, able to teach, not resentful. Those who oppose him he must gently instruct, in the hope that God will give them a change of heart leading to a knowledge of the truth. Taoism. A central quest within Taoist practices is the search for immortality - literal, physical immortality. The sense of an interplay between natural law and the abstract laws prevailing in the cosmos, is held in common by shamanism and Taoism.
Early Buddhism consciously created a mythology to give meaning to its practices and beliefs. Even the advent of Buddhism is mythologized in the tale of the Emperor Ming. His dream of a golden man who could fly led him to dispatch messengers to Afghanistan to bring back the Buddhist scriptures.
Pangu and the Creation of the World This myth is similar to many creation myths worldwide, in which the world is formed out of the body of a primal being.
In the beginning there was darkness everywhere, and Chaos ruled. Within the darkness there formed an egg, and inside the egg the giant Pangu came into being.
For aeons, safely inside the egg, Pangu slept and grew. When he had grown to gigantic size he stretched his huge limbs and in so doing broke the egg. The lighter parts of the egg floated upwards to form the heavens and the denser parts sank downwards, to become the earth.
And so was formed earth and sky, Yin and Yang. Pangu saw what had happened and he was pleased. But he feared that heaven and earth might meld together again, so he placed himself between them, his head holding up the sky and his feet firmly upon the earth. Pangu continued to grow at a rate of ten feet a day for 18, years, so increasing the distance between heaven and earth, until they seemed fixed and secure, 30, miles apart.
Now exhausted, Pangu went back to sleep and never woke up. Pangu died, and his body went to make the world and all its elements. The wind and clouds were formed from his breath, his voice was thunder and lightning, his eyes became the sun and moon, his arms and his legs became the four directions of the compass and his trunk became the mountains.
His flesh turned into the soil and the trees that grow on it, his blood into the rivers that flow and his veins into paths men travel.
His body hair became the grass and herbs, and his skin the same, while precious stones and minerals were formed from his bones and teeth.
His sweat became the dew and the hair of his head became the stars that trail throughout heaven. As for the parasites on his body, these became the divers races of humankind. Although Pangu is dead, some say he is still responsible for the weather, which fluctuates according to his moods.
Commentary Despite the fact that this tale is accepted as a legacy of ancient China, it is probable that is was imported from South East Asia However, it is usually ascribed to Ko Hung, Taoist writer of the fourth century CE, who also wrote on the preparation of an elixir of life, and similar subjects.
He also wrote Biographies of Spirits and Immortals, which is a prime source of mythological material. In some versions the egg is produced by a mother figure of some description, and even where this is absent, it is present by implication.
At one level it merely dramatizes the experience of every individual, starting existence in the egg-shape of the womb, which is at first a container and a totality.
Conscious, separate existence is achieved when the container is breached, but ends at death, when the constituents of the body return to the earth to become part of the cycle of life.Myth: Myth, a symbolic narrative, usually of unknown origin and at least partly traditional, that ostensibly relates actual events and that is especially associated with religious belief.
It is distinguished from symbolic behaviour (cult, ritual) and symbolic places or objects (temples, icons). Myths are. Myth: Myth, a symbolic narrative, usually of unknown origin and at least partly traditional, that ostensibly relates actual events and that is especially associated with religious belief.
It is distinguished from symbolic behaviour (cult, ritual) and symbolic places or objects (temples, icons).
Myths are. Contemporary Metaphilosophy. What is philosophy? What is philosophy for? How should philosophy be done? These are metaphilosophical questions, metaphilosophy being the study of the nature of philosophy.
Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in society, such as foundational tales.
Myths often consist of sacred narratives about gods. The term mythology may either refer to the study of myths in general, or a body of myths regarding a particular subject.
The study of myth began in ancient attheheels.com classes of the . Taoism. A central quest within Taoist practices is the search for immortality - literal, physical immortality. The sense of an interplay between natural law and the abstract laws prevailing in the cosmos, is held in common by shamanism and Taoism.
Introduction. Touch is one of the most essential elements of human development, a profound method of communication, a critical component of the health and growth of infants, and a powerful healing force (Bowlby, ; Harlow, , ; Barnett, ).