What rights did aboriginal people have in ? Ask Australians when Aborigines got the vote and most of them will say
This chapter examines changing government policies including assimilation, integration and self-determination.
This chapter also gives an overview of Indigenous Australian protests for equality and land rights and responses to these issues from the government. Assimilation Aboriginal people were expected to fit in with white Australian culture - they were expected to assimilate. The assimilation policy did not work.
Many people thought they were doing the right thing by the children when they took them away - others had more sinister motives, planning to breed the Aborigines into extinction.
See image 1 Despair and isolation are two of the most long lasting consequences of the removal policy and assimilation.
Emotional, physical and sexual abuse was a common experience in the new homes relocated children. There is a legacy of severe psychological damage among the Stolen Generations. Equality and protest The taking away of reserve land and the assimilation policy led to an increase in Aboriginal activism.
In the Commonwealth Electoral Act Cth was amended so that all Aborigines could vote in Commonwealth elections. Equal pay for Aboriginal workers was finally granted in See image 2 The referendum changed the constitution so that the Indigenous people could be counted in the census and the Commonwealth government could make laws for them.
The move towards self-determination was one of the biggest gains made by the Aboriginal protest movement. Self-determination meant that aboriginal people have more say in their affairs and more input into the laws and policies that affected their community.
The new Federal Labour Government under E. Gough Whitlam was instituting a major period of change in Australia. Instead of trying to destroy Aboriginal culture the federal government encouraged people to accept it.
Schools began teaching Aboriginal culture and history to both Indigenous and white children. The land rights issue also continued, but now the Commonwealth government was seriously looking into the issue of land ownership and the effect of mining and other commercial projects on traditional Aboriginal land.
Legally this meant that no one lived there and therefore no one could claim land rights under the Law. The report recommended that reserve land should be given to Indigenous people and Crown land should be made available for them to claim.
The s saw a gradual withdrawal away from Aboriginal land rights. The Meriam people, led by Eddie Mabo, began a Supreme Court challenge against the Queensland government on the issue of land ownership.
See image 3 The judgement was historic because it overturned the idea of terra nullius. The Mabo judgementsaid that terra nullius had never legally existed.
As terra nullius had been proved to be fiction and both ultimate title and native title were recognised and protected by common law, the claim of the Meriam people to ownership of the Murray Islands was proven to be justified on the facts of their case.
The Meriam people could prove a long and continuous tradition of living on that land, and native title had never been extinguished overturned on their land.
The Mabo decision opened the door for other Aboriginal groups to be able to claim ownership of land with which they had had a continuous connection. It was not, however, a smooth transition from judgement to legislation.
Under the Act Indigenous peoples could only claim vacant Crown land with which they had a continuous connection. As well as establishing the ground rules for what land could be claimed and by whom, the Act also set in place procedures for future claims.
The Mabo decision and the Native Title Act Cth really only affected a small proportion of the Indigenous community. Not many Aboriginal people could claim a continuous connection with their traditional lands that had not been taken by the Crown. They argued that because the leases had been granted by government legislation, the leases were not exclusive as under the common law and therefore native title could still exist.
The State of Queensland, said that a lease was a lease no matter what way it is defined. In The High Court found in favour of the Wik people on this point and said that there was a difference between these particular statutory leases and a common law lease.
The High Court also found that the statutory pastoral lease granted by the Crown did not automatically extinguish native title.but did they have the same rights as non-Indigenous Australians, and could they exercise those rights freely?
2 Your task is to prepare a summary list of the civil rights that were enjoyed by non-Indigenous people, but not by Indigenous people in Australia at the beginning of the s. Here’s how to do this. Outline the changing rights and freedoms of indigenous Australians throughout the 20th Century.
Aboriginal Australians before the first ever strike by Aboriginal workers was the Wave Hill Protest, with people form the Gurindji tribe protesting poor pay and living conditions in /5(4). Land Rights and Native Title Eddie Mabo, with the help of many other important figure heads of the Australian political and legal scene in Australia during the late ’s, took to court a case of Aboriginal land rights that would spark a turning point in the battle for freedoms and equality for the Aboriginal people.
Held on 26 January, this Aboriginal-only protest meeting was a response to the th anniversary celebrations of the arrival of British settlers in Australia, and the inferior citizenship status of Indigenous people.
This theme of the struggle for full Indigenous citizenship rights is a significant and continuing part of Australia’s history. Indigenous people, Changing rights and freedoms, Australia after , SOSE: History, Year 9, TAS Introduction The treatment of indigenous Australians by the government has been an issue of contention since White Europeans settled in Australia.
a How have the rights and freedoms of Aboriginal peoples in Australia changed during the post-war period? Comprehension c Aboriginal people were able to manage and run the reserves themselves. Australia in the 20th Century Chapter 6 Changing rights and freedoms.