Visit Website Did you know? As early asin his memoir and propaganda tract "Mein Kampf" My StruggleAdolf Hitler had predicted a general European war that would result in "the extermination of the Jewish race in Germany. In the mids, he began the rearmament of Germany, secretly and in violation of the Versailles Treaty. After signing alliances with Italy and Japan against the Soviet UnionHitler sent troops to occupy Austria in and the following year annexed Czechoslovakia.
At the Battle of Coronelit inflicted the first major defeat on the Royal Navy in over one hundred years, although the German squadron of ships was subsequently defeated at the Battle of the Falkland Islandsonly one ship escaping destruction.
The Navy also emerged from the fleet action of the Battle of Jutland having destroyed more ships than it lost, although the strategic value of both of these encounters was minimal. The Imperial Navy was the first to operate submarines successfully on a large scale in wartime, with submarines commissioned by the end of the First World War, and it also operated zeppelins.
The unification of Germany under Prussian leadership was the defining point for the creation of the Imperial Navy in The newly created emperor, Wilhelm Ias King of Prussia, had previously been head of state of the strongest state forming part of the new empire.
Supreme command was vested in the emperor, but its first appointed chief was General der Infanterie General of the Infantry Albrecht von Stosch. The former Navy Ministry became the Imperial Admiralty on 1 Februarywhile Stosch became formally an admiral in This called for eight armoured frigates, six armoured corvettes, twenty light corvettes, seven monitors, two floating batteries, six avisoseighteen gunboats and twenty-eight torpedo boats, at an estimated cost of million gold marks.
The building plan had to be approved by the Reichstagwhich controlled the allocation of funds, although one-quarter of the money came from French war reparations. At this point the navy had seven armoured frigates and four armoured corvettes, officers and 5, ratings.
The objectives of coastal defence remained largely unchanged, but there was a new emphasis on development of the torpedo, which offered the possibility of relatively small ships successfully attacking much larger ones.
In October the first torpedo division was created at Wilhelmshaven and the second torpedo division based at Kiel. In Caprivi requested the construction of ten armoured frigates.
Greater importance was placed at this time on development of the army, which was expected to be more important in any war. However, the Kiel Canal was commenced in Junewhich connected the North Sea with the Baltic through the Jutland peninsula, allowing German ships to travel between the two seas avoiding waters controlled by other countries.
This shortened the journey for commercial ships, but specifically united the two areas principally of concern to the German navy, at a cost of million marks. This soon involved the setting up of some overseas supply stations, so called Auslandsstationen foreign stations and in the s the Imperial Navy played a part in helping to secure the establishment of German colonies and protectorates in Africa, Asia and Oceania.
He started his reign with the intention of doing for the navy what his grandfather Wilhelm I had done for the army.
The creation of a maritime empire to rival the British and French empires became an ambition to mark Germany as a truly global great power. On one occasion he wore the uniform of a British admiral to receive the visiting British ambassador.
Instead, he proceeded with a plan to expand the navy slowly, justifying enlargement step by step. Monts oversaw the design of the Brandenburg-class battleship, four of which were constructed by at a cost of 16 million marks each and displacement of 10, tons.
The Head of the navy cabinet was responsible for promotions, appointments, administration and issuing orders to naval forces. The existing Imperial admiralty was abolished and its responsibilities divided between two organisations.
A new position of Chief of the Imperial Naval High Command was created, being responsible for ship deployments, strategy and tactics, an equivalent to the supreme commander of the Army. Vice admiral Max von der Goltz was appointed in and remained in post until Construction and maintenance of ships and obtaining supplies was the responsibility of the State Secretary of the Imperial Navy Office Reichsmarineamtresponsible to the chancellor and advising the Reichstag on naval matters.
Each of these three heads of department reported separately to Wilhelm II. The ships were innovative for their time, introducing a complex system of watertight compartments and storing coal along the sides of the ship to help absorb explosions. However, the ships went against the trend for increasingly larger main guns, having smaller diameter guns than the Brandenburg design, but with a quick-loading design and more powerful secondary armaments.
Costs rose to 21 million marks each, as had size to 11, tons. The ships, completed between andhad deck armour but not side armour and were intended for overseas duties.
Shortages of funding meant it was not possible to create several designs of cruisers specialised for long range work, or more heavily armoured for fleet work. Tirpitz advocated the cause of an expanded navy necessary for Germany to defend her territories abroad.
He had great success in persuading parliament to pass successive Navy bills authorising expansions of the fleet.Hundreds of links to WW2 Air Warfare.
Luftwaffe, RAF, USAAF, Japanese air fore, bombing raids, blitz. World War I summary: The war fought between July 28, , and November 11, , was known at the time as the Great War, the War to End War, and (in the United States) the European War.
Only when the world went to war again in the s and ’40s did the earlier conflict become known as the First World War. World War 2 Summary Brief answers to the key questions about World War 2 As time goes by, World War 2, which was the largest, deadliest, most dramatic event in human history, shifts from living memory to written history, and knowledge of it becomes less obvious.
The German Army of the Nazi era inherited its uniforms and rank structure from the Reichsheer of the Weimar republic (–), many of whose traditions went back to the Imperial Army of the German Empire and earlier.
The Reichsheer was renamed Wehrmacht Heer in May There were few. World War I summary: The war fought between July 28, , and November 11, , was known at the time as the Great War, the War to End War, and (in the United States) the European War. Only when the world went to war again in the s and ’40s did the earlier conflict become known as the First.
|Planning, 1941–43||For more information, click to see the Casualties of World War I.|
|Frequently bought together||Nine months later, by the middle ofthe U. Navy would have enjoyed a nearly two-to-one superiority in carrier aircraft capacity!|
What follows is a summary of the more significant persons in the German command structure during World War II, mostly gleaned from their Wikipedia entires, and in the cases of Raeder, Donitz, Goring, von Manstein, Guderian, Rommel, von Richtofen, Kesselring, Paulus, and Canaris informed by my other studies in numerous books and articles peripheral to other topics.